What is cognitive development?
This refers to our thought processes such as memory, problem-solving, decision making, and other mental processing skills needed for effective learning. By the age of 2 years, children are developing their memory skills and will be starting to understand cause and effect. For example, if I tip my cup over, my drink will spill. As a result of their developing memory skills, children will also start to be able to ‘conserve’ ideas, for example, realising that if something is moved, its properties are not affected. It still exists.
As they get older and their vocabulary develops, they may start to talk to themselves as they are playing and be able to identify more abstract ideas such as colours. By 5 years, a child should be able to make comparisons and judgments relating to concepts such as heavier and lighter, more and less, and be able to tell if two sets of objects are the same.